Finnish development cooperation in Mozambique
Mozambique is one of the world's poorest countries, which still suffers from the political, military and economic instability after the civil war. Extreme poverty has decreased, but almost half of the population still lives below the poverty line. Mozambique has abundant natural resources, but their exploitation is only getting started. At the earliest, they are expected to bring in significant revenues in about ten years. The focus of Finland’s support to Mozambique is on developing basic education, developing democracy and strengthening governance, and improving food security among the poorest farmers. Finland's planned budget frame for Mozambique in 2016–2019 is EUR 52 million.
In 2018 Mozambique ranked 180 in the UNDP Human Development Index. About half of the population is illiterate, 43% of the under five-year-olds suffer from chronic malnutrition, and social inequality is growing.
During the period 2016–2019 the main objective of Finland is to develop commercial-economic cooperation, alongside with the traditional development cooperation. Cooperation with private stakeholders is to be increased. Commercial cooperation will also be promoted via the development cooperation instruments, through the Finnpartnership and BEAM programmes and support from Finnfund in particular.
Cooperation by civil society organisations
Several Finnish civil society organisations support societal development in Mozambique in collaboration with the country’s civil society actors. The key priorities include strengthening democratic development, promoting human rights, improving government transparency, ensuring debt sustainability, and sustainable use of natural resources.
The objectives set for Mozambique’s education sector have been exceeded, in part with Finland's support. Nearly 90 per cent of children start comprehensive school. The school network has expanded, new school buildings have been built also in rural areas, and girls, in particular, have benefited from this development.
The percentage of girls who attend school has steadily grown, and girls complete their education more often than previously. More teachers have been hired, and there is less inequality in terms of the regional provision of education.
There are now clearly more qualified teachers than previously but the standard of teaching is still very low.
Education in the pupils’ mother tongue has been increased and efforts are made to extend this gradually to the whole country. Teaching provided in the mother tongue is clearly linked to learning outcomes. Finland has been active in this area and provided funding for teaching.
Finland has supported activities that have produced new research data about poverty and inequality, entrepreneurship, the prospects and challenges of the extractive industries, the labour market, and the creation of decent jobs to support political decision-making and public debate.
Finland has supported the establishment of an independent research institute and its operation. This has contributed to public discussion about topical questions in society.
Members of the national and county parliaments have received training on the legislation and international practices relating to the extractive industries. Parliament has improved its oversight capacity in the sector and highlighted environmental and human rights problems, for instance.
Through Finland's support, the cooperation and exchange of information between the national parliament and regional parliaments have improved.
Projects supported by Finland have improved food security in the provinces of Sofala and Zambezia. In the counties of Caia, Namacurra and Nicoadala, the number of months when people suffer from hunger has dropped from four to zero and to one in Maringue.
The greatest risks in implementing the country strategy in Mozambique are linked to corruption and shortcomings in the state's financial administration. The risks also include overexploitation of natural resources and problems related to the distribution of the income derived from them. Reducing poverty and inequality requires political commitment by the Government to implement an economic policy that also benefits the poor.
Finland aims to strengthen the country’s research capacity and institutional competence for the planning and monitoring of public sector finances. Finland's financial contributions and the projects are monitored closely.
Extreme weather events such as destructive floods and droughts occurring yearly are also a threat to sustainable development in Mozambique.
EUR 9 million a year via the Education Sector Support Fund (FASE)
EUR 1 million a year via Finnish CSOs.
Established democracy and good governance:
EUR 0.75 million a year to research cooperation with the Eduardo Mondlane University and the Ministry of Finance of Mozambique
EUR 0.5 million a year to the Institute for Economic and Social Research (IESE)
EUR 0.5 million a year to support the oversight and legislative capacity of Parliament in natural resource management through a programme implemented by NIMD (Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy), DEMO (Demo Finland) and IMD (Institute for Multiparty Democracy)
EUR 0.75 million in 2019 via UNDP to Mozambique’s election authorities to improve the transparency and reliability of the elections in 2019.
Finland also supports the economic and societal development of Mozambique through UN agencies and international financial institutions. The key partners are UNICEF, UNFPA, UN Women and WFP as well as the World Bank and the African Development Bank.