Finland’s relations and development cooperation in Tanzania
Finnish development cooperation in Tanzania supports the local civil society, strengthens forest-based livelihoods, and improves climate resilience.
Tanzania has been a stable and democracy-oriented country for a long time. Its economy has grown rapidly throughout the 21st century, contributing to the reduction of poverty. In recent years, a growing number of Tanzanians have got access to free education and electricity.
Despite the progress that has been made, approximately one out of four Tanzanians still live below the national poverty line. Democracy development has slowed down due to measures that have weakened the position of civil society, opposition, the media, parliament and judicial system. Rapid population growth, poor climate resilience, and gender inequality lay stumbling blocks to long-term development.
The long-term relations between Finland and Tanzania have focused on development cooperation. Since the 1970s, Finland has directed its support to Tanzania to the development of forestry, the environment, education and good governance, for example. By the side of traditional partnerships, cooperation is carried out by the private sector, educational institutions and civil society.
The objectives of Finland’s comprehensive activities in Tanzania are described in the Country Strategy and the Country Programme. The latter focuses on development cooperation. The Country Strategy covers the years 2021–2024. Its main goals are to strengthen democracy, human rights and equality; to promote stability and sustainable development; to support improved forest-based livelihoods and climate resilience; to boost inclusive and sustainable economic growth; and to create jobs in Tanzania.
Goals of Finland’s development cooperation in Tanzania in 2021–2024
In 2021–2024, Finland’s bilateral cooperation in Tanzania will focus on promoting active citizenship as well as on supporting improved forest-based livelihoods and climate resilience. The financial frame for 2021–2024 is approximately EUR 56 million.
In the previous programming period in 2016–2019, Finland concentrated on improving the operation of the public sector and employment and businesses.
Finnish development cooperation promotes active citizenship
Finland directs its development cooperation to measures that protect the operating space for civil society, support the appointment of women in leadership roles, help to provide services for people who suffer from gender-based violence, and strengthens the tax administration.
Outcome: Active citizenship leads to inclusive development
- The civil society has a safer operating space
- Women have improved opportunities of participation in leading roles in society
- People who have experienced sexual and gender-based violence have better access to support services
- Tax administration will be more effective
Ongoing programmes and projects
- UN Women’s programme entitled Women’s Leadership and Political Participation (WLPP): EUR 3.9 million in 2017–2021
- Support to the Institute of African Leadership for Sustainable Development (Uongozi Institute): EUR 9.9 million in 2017–2021
- EUR 3.9 million in 2018–2021 to the cooperation with Tanzania’s tax administration to develop the taxation system, and support given by the Finnish tax administration: EUR 5 million in all in 2018–2022
- Support to TWAWEZA, which is a non-profit initiative, to promote citizen’s participation in planning and decision-making processes, the State’s accountability, and the development of a positive operating space for civil society actors: EUR 1.5 million in 2019–2022
- Support to the Legal and Human Rights Center (LHRC) promotes human rights and citizens’ participation in election processes: EUR 1.5 million in 2019–2021
- UNFPA’s programme aiming to protect the rights and choices of women and girls of all abilities: EUR 5.25 million in 2021–2024
- UNFPA’s COVID-10 pandemic response: EUR 900,000 million in 2020–2021
- UNICEF’s COVID-10 pandemic response: EUR 1 million in 2020–2021
Finnish development cooperation supports improved forest-based livelihoods and climate resilience
Finland supports the ecosystem services in forests and village plantations, jobs and income generation in forestry, and citizens’ capacity to adapt to climate change.
Outcome: Improved forest-based livelihoods and climate resilience
- Improved quality of ecosystem services based on forests and village plantations
- Greater number of jobs in forestry and better income generation
- Citizens’ improved capacity to adapt to climate change
Ongoing programmes and projects
- Second phase of the Participatory Plantation Forestry Programme (PFP 2): EUR 9.4 million in 2019–2023
- Forestry and Value Chains programme (FORVAC): EUR 9.95 million in 2018–2022
- Support to commercial plantation forestry among small-holders: EUR 1.1 million in 2019–2022
Highlights of the Results Report 2022
The expansion of Tanzanian civic space, combined with economic reforms, nurtured an environment conducive for the widening and deepening of bilateral relations between Finland and Tanzania. However, despite the strong economic growth, which averaged 4.7%, absolute poverty, inequality and high youth employment remained considerable challenges.
The Tanzanian government continued its support for gender equality and women in leadership. There was good progress in Finland’s projects that contribute to the process of amending the Marriage Act, aimed at prohibiting child marriage. Once approved and implemented, the law could have a significant impact on the lives of girls and young women in Tanzania.
Tanzania's Tax Revenue Authority maintained its drive – with Finland’s support – towards mobilising domestic revenue. Tanzania's Domestic Revenue Collection indicates an annual performance of about 96% compared with the target for the financial year 2021/2022. This is a clear improvement on the previous year, when performance was 87% vis-à-vis the target. Also, the number of active compliant taxpayers increased from 3.3 million to 3.6 million.
The Uongozi Institute continued to build financial self-sustainability, with only 17% of its funding provided by Finland.
Finland maintained its support for Tanzanian community-based forest management and plantation forestry, as well as for forest-based value chains. In 2022, five thousand jobs, largely part-time, were created in the sector, thanks to the activities of Finnish-funded programmes. Revenue for rural communities and families from primary processed timber in Finnish-funded forest regions was EUR 1.1 million, part of which funded healthcare and school services. The total number of beneficiaries rose from 67,000 persons to 88,000 persons between 2020 and 2022.
Finland’s partners for development cooperation in Tanzania
Finland works in Tanzania as a member of the European Union and the donor community. As an EU Member State, Finland participates in the EU’s dialogue with the Government of Tanzania, where the country is encouraged to develop human rights and democracy, to advance good governance, to promote trade, to combat climate change, and to support the rules-based international system.
Finland collaborates closely with the other Nordic countries. They uphold the Nordic values, continue political dialogue and promote trade.
In future, Finland, together with other donors, will work to promote Tanzania’s efforts to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Finland also supports economic and social development in Tanzania by providing funding for UN organisations and international development finance institutions. In addition, Finland provides needs-based humanitarian assistance especially via humanitarian organisations of the UN and Finnish civil society organisations.
Several Finnish civil society organisations support the development in Tanzanian society in collaboration with the country’s civil society actors. This support focuses on the improvement of persons with disabilities, education, healthcare, and the environment.
Team Finland cooperation
Tanzania and Finland want to develop their mutual trade and investments by the side of the traditional development cooperation. They aim is to increase both direct trade between the countries and trade supported by Finland’s public sector, such as via Finnfund.
So far, the volume of trade has been modest, and only a few Finnish companies are active in Tanzania. However, Tanzania's economic development opens up export opportunities for Finnish expertise. Potential sectors for Finnish exports include forestry, energy economy and innovations in various fields related to information technology.
Finland’s objective is to double its trade with African countries in 2020–2030. During the same period of time, efforts will be made to significantly increase Finnish companies’ investments in Africa and African companies’ investments in Finland. Finland supports, for example, TradeMark East Africa (TMEA) in order to enhance Finnish companies’ opportunities to trade in Tanzania and other East African countries.