Evaluation report 2014:2 Complementarity in Finland’s Development Policy and Co-operation: Synthesis

Lucien Bäck
Ann Bartholomew

ISBN 978-952-281-211-7 (printed)
ISBN 978-952-281-210-0 (pdf)
ISSN 1235-7618

Complementarity in Finland’s Development Policy and Co-operation: Synthesis

The Evaluation aimed to learn from experiences gained between 2004 and 2012, with a view to proposing mechanisms to enhance complementarity. The evaluation comprised four case studies. The evaluation used multiple methods, including document reviews, interviews, surveys, and visits to 10 partner countries.

In Finland’s Development Policy Programmes from 2004, 2007 and 2012, complementarity was generally referred to as a principle, but the concept was not defined in detail. Finland’s contributions were externally complementary in multilateral contexts and aligned with partner countries’ national development policies and strategies. Finland also aimed at optimal donor co-ordination. Internal complementarity between the various channels and instruments of Finland’s development aid received little attention. They largely acted in isolation from each other without adequate internal mechanisms to ensure complementarity. The high degree of centralisation of review processes and decision-making favoured external complementarity, but it did not translate into increased internal complementarity.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) should develop clear policies, guidelines and monitoring on complementarity and decentralise the administration of development co-operation. The MFA should also explore new ways of promoting complementarity with other Finnish institutions, e.g. NGOs and technical agencies implementing IKI projects.

Keywords: complementarity, coherence, co-ordination, Institutional Co-operation Instrument, Non-Governmental Organisations